Exam 2 Study Guide

Overview of content for exam

  • Lecture material from weeks 7 through 14 (NOTE: There is only one lecture in Week 7, and one in Week 14)
  • Required readings from weeks 7 through 14
  • Professor Hernando Rojas’ guest lecture on persuasion
  • Professor Lew Friedland’s guest lecture on the journalistic ecosystem
  • Professor Young Mie Kim’s guest lecture on political advertising
  • Professor Karyn Riddle’s guest lecture on media effects
  • Professor Hemant Shah’s guest lecture on cultural studies

Format of exam

The exam will take place on Friday, April 21, in lecture. Arrive a few minutes early to be ready to start at 9:55. The exam will include a combination of multiple choice, fill in the blank, and short answer. Please bring a pen or two.

Key concepts and areas for study

This list does not include every detail you may be asked for. It is an outline of key areas and concepts. In your studying, it may be helpful to consult with peers about the details of each concept. (It also does not include all concepts from readings and guest lectures. Some concepts from readings and guest lectures are noted below; but this does not mean that others will not appear on the exam.)

You are most responsible for understanding key concepts and arguments, and being able to explain them and apply them to various contexts. You will not be tested on minute details of the topics.

  • Purposes of strategic communication (commercial, political, social)
  • Major periods in advertising, including late 19th-century, postwar (post-WWII); 60s and 70s, and today
  • Ongoing changes and challenges in advertising
  • 5-step strategic thinking
  • Surveys, focus groups and observation/ethnography, and tradeoffs of representativeness and detail
  • Different kinds of strategic goals: in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and (different kinds of) behaviors
  • Target marketing
  • Market segmentation and demographics, geographics, psychographics and behaviors
  • Ways of characterizing consumers—PRIZM and VALS
  • “Aperture”
  • “right time” in terms of time of day, seasonal, special events, associated content and other ads
  • Ratings and shares—and how to calculate them (you may be given a problem with actual numbers requiring simple division)
  • Considerations in creative message creation
  • Matching messages to audiences in terms of needs, self-conception and aspirations
  • High/low involvement products
  • Head vs. heart appeals; impulse appeals
  • ROI
  • Formal elements of visual (print) ad design
  • Critiques of advertising: 6 elements
  • Strategic communication in politics
  • Market research in politics: polling
  • Frank Luntz and the “art of listening”
  • Varieties of political ads: positive, attack, defense,
  • “Magic bullet” perspective; 2 major studies (Payne Fund and Cantril)
  • War of the Worlds broadcast: the event and its significance
  • Two-step flow perspective; 2 studies; Opinion leaders; Idea of social context mediating media messages’ effects
  • Critical theory: Frankfurt school and historical context; importance of power in this perspective
  • Cultural Studies; Stuart Hall; Representation; Resistance
  • “Common cultural environment” and how it is presented, both traditionally and through mass media
  • The rapid adoption of television
  • “Dosage” and how much television dosage most Americans have
  • The idea of perceptions of the world being affected by a “common cultural environment”
  • Perceptions of sexual behaviors, people of other race, the world as a scary place as result of cultivation
  • Possible behaviors and other outcomes, including political outcomes, as a result of cultivated perceptions
  • The idea that cultivation’s concepts could be applied to other media besides television